Neuropsychiatric profile of paediatric hypothalamic hamartoma: systematic review and case series.
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2019 Apr 11;:
Authors: Corbet Burcher G, Liang H, Lancaster R, Cross JH, Tisdall M, Varadkar S, Spoudeas HA, Caredda E, Bennett S, Heyman I
AIM: To evaluate neuropsychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with hypothalamic hamartoma.
METHOD: We retrospectively analysed case notes for all individuals with hypothalamic hamartoma referred to Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, between 2000 and 2016. In addition, a systematic review aiming to identify all previous paediatric case series was performed. Psychiatric symptoms, demographics, physical comorbidities, and cognitive functioning were recorded for all cases where possible. Analyses were performed to determine which factors were associated with psychopathology and potential mechanisms investigated.
RESULTS: Forty-six cases were included in the case series (28 males, 18 females; mean age at assessment 11y 8mo [1y 11mo-16y 11mo, SD 4y 0mo]). Twenty-nine papers representing data from 264 cases met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Overall, at least 50% of cases presented with psychopathology. Epilepsy, intellectual disability, and male sex were associated with externalizing disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct and oppositional defiance disorders, and rage attacks). Intellectual disability mediated the effects of epilepsy on externalizing psychopathology. No factors were associated with internalizing disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders), although these were not well reported.
INTERPRETATION: Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent in the presentation of paediatric hypothalamic hamartoma. The aetiology of psychopathology comprises a range of interacting biological and psychosocial factors with particular influence from epilepsy. Further research is required to achieve an evidence base for treatment.
WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Over half of children with hypothalamic hamartoma present with psychiatric comorbidity. Externalizing and internalizing disorders are present in approximately 60% and 30% of children with hypothalamic hamartomas respectively. Epilepsy and male sex are associated with externalizing psychopathology. Intellectual disability mediates the association between epilepsy and externalizing symptoms. No clear associations are evident for internalizing disorders or precocious puberty.
PMID: 30977116 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]