Methylphenidate effects on processing speed in a clinical sample of adults with ADHD and substance use disorder: a pilot study.
Nord J Psychiatry. 2019 Feb;73(2):118-124
Authors: Arvidsson M, Dahl ML, Franck J, Wiig EH, Nielsen NP
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are common comorbidities of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The most commonly prescribed medication for ADHD is methylphenidate. The clinical response to methylphenidate may be monitored against DSM-5 symptomatology, rating scales or interviews.
AIMS: To evaluate the use of perceptual and cognitive processing speed measures to monitor methylphenidate effects in adults with ADHD and SUD.
METHODS: A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) monitored perceptual and cognitive processing speed in 28 adults with ADHD and SUD on treatment with methylphenidate before and after the morning dose.
RESULTS: Twenty-six patients responded on AQT after the morning dose of methylphenidate. One-way ANOVA indicated significant treatment effects for color, form, and color-form combination naming, but not for shift cost values. Before the morning dose of methylphenidate, 92% were identified by cutoff time criteria for longer-than-normal processing times. After the morning dose of methylphenidate, 65% obtained color and form measures in the normal range for age peers. Only 35% obtained color-form processing measures in the normal range. Inter-individual response variability before medication intake was considerably larger than previously reported in studies of adults with ADHD only.
CONCLUSION: Proportionally, fewer adults with ADHD and SUD exhibited normalization of processing speed than previously observed for adults with ADHD without SUD. A potential clinical implication of the present study is that the AQT test may be used as a tool for dose-adjustment of central stimulants in the treatment of adults with ADHD and SUD.
PMID: 30861357 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]