ADHD and subthreshold symptoms in childhood and life outcomes at 40 years in a prospective birth-risk cohort.
Psychiatry Res. 2019 Sep 25;281:112574
Authors: Schiavone N, Virta M, Leppämäki S, Launes J, Vanninen R, Tuulio-Henriksson A, Immonen S, Järvinen I, Lehto E, Michelsson K, Hokkanen L
We investigated ADHD symptoms and life outcomes in adulthood and their association with childhood ADHD and subthreshold symptoms in a prospectively followed cohort with perinatal risks. We identified participants with childhood ADHD (cADHD, n = 37), subthreshold symptoms defined as attention problems (cAP, n = 64), and no ADHD or cAP (Non-cAP, n = 217). We compared the groups and a control group with no perinatal risks (n = 64) on self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive dysfunction, and life outcomes in adulthood. At age 40, 21.6% of the cADHD, 6.3% of the cAP, 6.0% of the Non-cAP group, and 1.6% of the controls reached a screener cutoff for possible ADHD. The cADHD group had lower educational level, more ADHD symptoms and executive dysfunction, and higher rates of drug use than the other groups. Childhood ADHD associated with perinatal risks persists into midlife whereas childhood subthreshold ADHD symptoms in this cohort were not associated with negative outcomes in adulthood.
PMID: 31590105 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]